Article – Correlation between segregation behavior and wall thickness in a rheological high pressure die-casting AC46000 Alloy

Logo_Correlation between segregation--2

Correlation between segregation behavior and wall thickness in a rheological high pressure die-casting AC46000 Alloy

Author links open overlay panel  MingfanQia  JingyuanLia  YonglinKangab

a School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

b Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing of Ministry of Education, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

 

Abstract

The segregation behavior of a rheological high pressure die-casting (Rheo-HPDC) AC46000 aluminum alloy at positions with different wall thicknesses was studied. The results reveal that positions with different wall thicknesses exhibit different cooling rates that can result in distinctly different segregation characteristics. Segregation results in varying microstructure, elemental distribution, and hardness along the thickness of an alloy. The segregation in a Rheo-HPDC AC46000 alloy can be categorized as: cross-sectional segregation along the thickness and center segregation. As the distance from the alloy surface increases, the volume fraction of the primary phase increases, and the hardness of the microstructure and content of the eutectic Al-Si, Al2Cu, and α-(FeMn)3Si2Al15 phases decrease. As the alloy wall thickness increases, the differences in the volume fraction of the primary phase, elemental content, and hardness of the microstructure between the edge and center gradually decrease. Compared with the normal center microstructure, the volume fraction of the primary phase in the center segregation microstructure is lower, and the morphology is not round. The content of the eutectic Al-Si, Al2Cu, α-(FeMn)3Si2Al15, and Si phases is higher, and these phases are nonuniformly distributed. Center segregation is often accompanied by shrinkage cracks. As the alloy wall thickness increases, the center segregation area and crack size increase, and the more hard–brittle α-(FeMn)3Si2Al15 particles accumulate the crack. The hardness of the center segregation structure is higher than that of the normal center structure. With increasing alloy wall thickness, the hardness of the center segregation microstructure first increases and then decreases.

 

 

References

[1]

T.A. Costa, M. Dias, L.G. Gomes, O.L. Rocha, A. Garcia

Effect of solution time in T6 heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of a directionally solidified Al-Si-Cu alloy

J Alloys Compd, 683 (2016), pp. 485-494

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[2]

J.K. Chen, H.Y. Hung, C.F. Wang, N.K. Tang

Thermal and electrical conductivity in Al-Si/Cu/Fe/Mg binary and ternary Al alloys

J Mater Sci, 50 (2015), pp. 5630-5639

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[3]

L.A.D.S. Baptista, K.G. Paradela, I.L. Ferreira, A. Garcia, A.F. Ferreira

Experimental study of the evolution of tertiary dendritic arms and microsegregation in directionally solidified Al-Si-Cu alloys castings

J Mater Res Technol (2018), 10.1016/j.jmrt.2018.05.021

View PDF

This article is free to access.

Google Scholar

[4]

H.L. Yang, D. Watson, Y. Wang, S.X. Ji

Effect of nickel on the microstructure and mechanical property of die-cast Al-Mg-Si-Mn alloy

J Mater Sci, 49 (2014), pp. 8412-8422

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[5]

  1. Forn, J.A. Picas, M.T. Baile, E. Martin, V.G. García

Microstructure and tribological properties of anodic oxide layer formed on Al-Si alloy produced by semisolid processing

Surf Coat Technol, 202 (2007), pp. 1139-1143

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[6]

  1. Outmani, L. Fouilland-Paille, J. Isselin, M.E. Mansori

Effect of Si, Cu and processing parameters on Al-Si-Cu HPDC castings

J Mater Process Technol, 249 (2017), pp. 559-569

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[7]

L.H. Wang, P. Turnley, G. Savage

Gas content in high pressure die castings

J Mater Process Technol, 211 (2011), pp. 1510-1515

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[8]

X.X. Dong, X.S. Huang, L.H. Liu, L.J. He, P.J. Li

A liquid aluminum alloy electromagnetic transport process for high pressure die casting

J Mater Process Technol, 234 (2016), pp. 217-227

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[9]

S.L. George, R.D. Knutsen

Composition segregation in semi-solid metal cast AA7075 aluminium alloy

J Mater Sci, 47 (2012), pp. 4716-4725

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[10]

  1. Janudom, J. Wannasin, J. Basem, S. Wisutmethangoon

Characterization of flow behavior of semi-solid slurries containing low solid fractions in high pressure die casting

Acta Mater, 61 (2013), pp. 6267-6275

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[11]

J.W. Zhao, C. Xu, G.Z. Dai, S.S. Wu, J. Han

Microstructure and properties of rheo-diecasting wrought aluminum alloy with Sc additions

Mater Lett, 173 (2016), pp. 22-25

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[12]

M.F. Qi, Y.L. Kang, B. Zhou, W.N. Liao, G.M. Zhu, Y.D. Li, et al.

A forced convection stirring process for Rheo-HPDC aluminum and magnesium alloys

J Mater Process Technol, 234 (2016), pp. 353-367

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[13]

  1. Thanabumrungkul, S. Janudom, R. Burapa, P. Dulyapraphant, J. Wannasin

Industrial development of gas induced semi-solid process

Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 20 (2010), pp. 1016-1021

Google Scholar

[14]

Z.M. Gao, W.Q. Jie, Y.Q. Liu, H.J. Luo

Solidification modelling for coupling prediction of porosity and segregation

Acta Mater, 127 (2017), pp. 277-286

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[15]

D.K. Lee, S.W. Kang, D.H. Cho, K.B. Kim

Effects of casting speed on microstructure and segregation of electro-magnetically stirred aluminum alloy in continuous casting process

Rare Metals, 25 (2006), pp. 118-123

ArticleDownload PDFCrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[16]

S.G. Lee, G.R. Patel, A.M. Gokhale

Inverse surface macro-segregation in high-pressure die-cast AM60 magnesium alloy and its effects on fatigue behavior

Scr Mater, 52 (2005), pp. 1063-1068

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[17]

  1. Maidorn, D. Blind

Solidification and segregation in heavy forging ingots

Nucl Eng Des, 84 (1985), pp. 285-296

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[18]

  1. Minárik, R. Král, J. Pesicka, F. Chmelík

Evolution of mechanical properties of LAE442 magnesium alloy processed by extrusion and ECAP

J Mater Res Technol, 4 (1) (2015), pp. 75-78

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[19]

S.Z. Wang, Z.S. Ji, S. Sugiyama, M.L. Hu

Segregation behavior of ADC12 alloy differential support formed by near-liquidus squeeze casting

Mater Des, 65 (2015), pp. 591-599

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[20]

  1. Chen, T. Zhou, B. Wang, H.W. Liu, F. Han

Microstructure evolution and segregation behavior of thixoformed Al-Cu-Mg-Mn alloy

Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 26 (2016), pp. 39-50

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[21]

  1. Du, Q. Zhu, D.Q. Li, F. Zhang

Study of formation mechanism of incipient melting in thixo-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys

Mater Charact, 106 (2015), pp. 134-140

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[22]

C.G. Kang, P.K. Seo, S.S. Kang

The effect of injection velocity on liquid segregation and mechanical properties in arm part fabricated by semi-solid die casting process

J Mater Process Technol, 176 (2006), pp. 32-40

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[23]

  1. Wang, C.M. Liu, M.H. Zou, Z.T. Han

Microstructure evolution of components of ZAlSi8Cu3Fe alloy in processing of thixo-diecasting

Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 18 (2008), pp. 109-115

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[24]

C.G. Kang, S.M. Lee

Effect of solid fraction and pressure on microstructure and mechanical properties and reduction in liquid segregation in the thixo-die-casting process with Al-7 Pct Si alloy

Metall Mater Trans A, 39A (2008), pp. 1213-1224

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[25]

  1. Zhou, Y.L. Kang, M.F. Qi, H.H. Zhang, G.M. Zhu

R-HPDC process with forced convection mixing device for automotive part of A380 aluminum alloy

Materials, 7 (2014), pp. 3084-3105

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[26]

  1. Möller, U.A. Curle, E.P. Masuku

Characterization of surface liquid segregation in SSM-HPDC aluminum alloys 7075, 2024, 6082 and A201

Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 20 (2010), pp. 847-851

Google Scholar

[27]

E.P. Masuku, H. Möller, U.A. Curle, P.C. Pistorius, W. Li

Influence of surface liquid segregation on corrosion behavior of semi-solid metal high pressure die cast aluminium alloys

Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 20 (2010), pp. 837-841

Google Scholar

[28]

M.F. Qi, Y.L. Kang, G.M. Zhu, Y.D. Li, W.R. Li

Improving microstructure and mechanical properties for large-diameter 7075 aluminum alloy ingots by a forced convection stirring casting process

Metall Mater Trans B, 48B (2017), pp. 993-1003

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[29]

  1. Ma, A.M. Samuel, H.W. Doty, S. Valtierra, F.H. Samuel

Effect of Fe content on the fracture behaviour of Al-Si-Cu cast alloys

Mater Des, 57 (2014), pp. 366-373

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[30]

Z.D. Li, N. Limodin, A. Tandjaoui, P. Quaegebeur, P. Osmond, D. Balloy

Influence of Sr, Fe and Mn content and casting process on the microstructures and mechanical properties of AlSi7Cu3 alloy

Mater Sci Eng A, 689 (2017), pp. 286-297

ArticleDownload PDFGoogle Scholar

[31]

T.A. Costa, E.S. Freitas, M. Dias, C. Brito, N. Cheung, A. Garcia

Monotectic Al-Bi-Sn alloys directionally solidified: effects of Bi content, growth rate and cooling rate on the microstructural evolution and hardness

J Alloys Compd, 653 (2015), pp. 243-254

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[32]

H.J. Wang, J. Xu, Y.L. Kang, M.O. Tang, Z.F. Zhang

Study on inhomogeneous characteristics and optimize homogenization treatment parameter for large size DC ingots of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

J Alloys Compd, 585 (2014), pp. 19-24

ArticleDownload PDFGoogle Scholar

[33]

  1. Saravanan, R. Sellamuthu

Determination of the effect of Si content on microstructure, hardness and wear rate of surface-refined Al-Si alloys

Proc Eng, 97 (2014), pp. 1348-1354

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[34]

  1. Xiao, H.Q. Liu, D.Q. Yi, D.Y. Yin, Y.Q. Chen, Y. Zhang, et al.

Effect of Cu content on precipitation and age-hardening behavior in Al-Mg-Si-xCu alloys

J Alloys Compd, 695 (2017), pp. 1005-1013

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[35]

Z.D. Li, N. Limodin, A. Tandjaoui, P. Quaegebeur, J.F. Witz, D. Balloy

Influence of Fe content on the damage mechanism in A319 aluminum alloy: tensile tests and digital image correlation

Eng Fract Mech, 183 (2017), pp. 94-108

ArticleDownload PDFGoogle Scholar

[36]

  1. Belmares-Perales, A.A. Zaldívar-Cadena

Addition of iron for the removal of the β-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of α-AlFeSi phase in an Al-7.5Si-3.6Cu alloy

Mater Sci Eng B, 174 (2010), pp. 191-195

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[37]

  1. Maleki, B. Niroumand, A. Shafyei

Effects of squeeze casting parameters on density, macrostructure and hardness of LM13 alloy

Mater Sci Eng B, 428 (2006), pp. 135-140

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[38]

N.C. Verissimo, E.S. Freitas, N. Cheung, A. Garcia, W.R. Osorio

The effects of Zn segregation and microstructure length scale on the corrosion behavior of a directionally solidified Mg-25 wt.%Zn alloy

J Alloys Compd, 723 (2017), pp. 649-660

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[39]

  1. Patarić, M. Mihailović, Z. Gulišija

Quantitative metallographic assessment of the electromagnetic casting influence on the microstructure of 7075 Al alloy

J Mater Sci, 47 (2012), pp. 793-796

View PDF

CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[40]

B.L. Ennis, E. Jimenez-Melero, R. Mostert, B. Santillana, P.D. Lee

The role of aluminium in chemical and phase segregation in a TRIP assisted dual phase steel

Acta Mater, 115 (2016), pp. 132-142

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[41]

H.W. Wang, B. Li, J.C. Jie, Z.J. Wei

Influence of thermal rate treatment and low temperature pouring on microstructure and tensile properties of AlSi7Mg alloy

Mater Des, 32 (2011), pp. 2992-2996

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[42]

S.Z. Zhu, T.J. Luo, Y.J. Li, Y.S. Yang

Characterization the role of squeezing pressure on microstructure, tensile properties and failure mode of a new Mg-6Zn-4Al-0.5Cu magnesium alloy

J Alloys Compd, 718 (2017), pp. 188-196

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[43]

S.K. Rathia, A. Sharma, M.D. Sabatino

Effect of mould temperature, grain refinement and modification on hot tearing test in Al-7Si-3Cu alloy

Eng Fail Anal, 79 (2017), pp. 592-605

Google Scholar

[44]

D.G. Leo Prakash, D. Regener

Micro–macro interactions and effect of section thickness of HPDC AZ91 Mg alloy

J Alloys Compd, 464 (2008), pp. 133-137

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[45]

D.R. Gunasegaram, M. Givord, R.G. O’Donnell, B.R. Finnin

Improvements engineered in UTS and elongation of aluminum alloy high pressure die castings through the alteration of runner geometry and plunger velocity

Mater Sci Eng A, 559 (2013), pp. 276-286

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[46]

  1. Dao, S.D. Zhao, W.J. Lin, C.Y. Zhang

Effect of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties in AlSi9Mg connecting-rod fabricated by semi-solid squeeze casting

Mater Sci Eng A, 558 (2012), pp. 95-102

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[47]

  1. Morinaka, M. Toyoda

Effects of Si, P and mold temperature on reverse segregation layer thickness in Al-Si system alloy casting

J Japan Foundry Eng, 85 (2013), pp. 197-204

View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[48]

S.Z. Wang

Microstructure evolution mechanism and defect control of ADC12 aluminum alloy near-liquidus squeeze casting [MSc dissertation]

Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin (2014)

Google Scholar

[49]

  1. Han, S. Cong, X. Wang

Influence of different cooling conditions on segregation of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloy

Heat Treat Met, 37 (6) (2012), pp. 17-19

View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[50]

  1. Kolahdooz, S.A. Dehkordi

Effects of important parameters in the production of Al-A356 alloy by semi-solid forming process

J Mater Res Technol (2018), 10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.11.005

View PDF

This article is free to access.

Google Scholar

[51]

X.G. Hu, Q. Zhu, H.V. Atkinson, H.X. Lu, F. Zhang, H.B. Dong, et al.

A time-dependent power law viscosity model and its application in modelling semi-solid die casting of 319s alloy

Acta Mater, 124 (2017), pp. 410-420

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[52]

  1. Pichler, R. Röck, R. Lackner

Apparent power-law fluid behavior of vibrated fresh concrete: engineering arguments based on Stokes-type sphere viscometer measurements

J Non-Newton Fluid, 240 (2017), pp. 44-55

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[53]

  1. Sohrabi Baba Heidary, F. Akhlaghi

Theoretical and experimental study on settling of SiC particles in composite slurries of aluminum A356/SiC

Acta Mater, 59 (2011), pp. 4556-4568

Google Scholar

[54]

X.G. Hu, Q. Zhu, S.P. Midson, H.V. Atkinson, H.B. Dong, F. Zhang, et al.

Blistering in semi-solid die casting of aluminium alloys and its avoidance

Acta Mater, 124 (2016), pp. 446-455

Google Scholar

[55]

J.W. Liu, H.P. Duarte, S. Kou

Evidence of back diffusion reducing cracking during solidification

Acta Mater, 122 (2017), pp. 47-59

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[56]

S.H. Zhang, X.G. Ai, R. Guan, S.L. Li, G.C. Wang, F.T. Meng

Numerical simulation on influence of cooling process on macro-segregation of ultra-low sulfur steel ingot

Foundry Technol, 37 (3) (2016), pp. 409-412

View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[57]

M.G.C. Xavier, C.B. Cruz, R. Kakitani, B.L. Silva, A. Garcia, N. Cheung, et al.

Directional solidification of a Sn-0.2Ni solder alloy in water-cooled copper and steel molds: related effects on the matrix micromorphology, nature of intermetallic and tensile properties

J Alloys Compd, 723 (2017), pp. 1039-1052

ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar

[58]

Goodson K, Kenny T, Zhou P, Upadhya G, Munch M, Mcmaster M, et al. Method and apparatus for achieving temperature uniformity and hot spot cooling in a heat producing device. US patent 7104312 B2;2006.

Google Scholar